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आयतन 1, मुद्दा 1 (2017)

शोध आलेख

American Center for Calculation of Biological Functionalities: AMultidisciplinary Forum for Designing Therapeutic Interventions andDetermining Disease Pathogenesis

Norbert Nwankwo*,Ngozika Njoku

Background: Bio-functionalities including disease characteristics are known to be associated with protein sequence alterations (mutations). As a result, determination of disease processes and progression (pathogenesis), and provision of biomedical devices through calculating and analysing these functionalities have become the most vital and rational procedure to understanding and managing them. Engaging computerized bioinformatics procedures such as the Digital Signal Processing (DSP)-based technique called Informational Spectrum Method (ISM) therefore remains a better approach. Using ISM, we have earlier demonstrated HIV/SIV pathogenesis, investigated their evolutionary roadmaps, predicted their tropism, designed biomedical devices and assessed resistance offered to several classes of drugs. More investigations are required in other areas like Cancer, Autism, etc. Additionally, more devices need be developed.
Aim: The aim of this submission is to recommend a computerized bioinformatics-based Center for calculating biological functionalities for purposes of multidisciplinary investigations, and designing of biomedical devices.
Methods: Recommended procedures for this Center for the Calculation of Bio-functionalities will include Digital Signal Processing (DSP)-based techniques such as Informational Spectrum Method (ISM), and Resonant Recognition Method (RRM).
Results: Preliminary investigations using the recommended procedures have been found to be fruitful. Over 1000 proteins of HIV, HSP, TNF, Plasmodium, Ebola, and others have been investigated using these procedures. This has resulted in the designing of drugs, vaccines, their candidates, free online tools and biomedical devices such as Computer-Aided Drug Resistance Calculator.
Discussions: To effectively carry out these investigations, which employ both vast deposits of sequence information and computerized bioinformatics-based techniques, teamwork hence a Center is required.
Conclusions: The Center is envisioned to provide multidisciplinary, rational, more accurate and quantifiable bioassessments. Appropriate engagement of all sequences and Amino Acid Scales is required in order to obtain accurate results.

मामला का बिबरानी

A Case of Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Due to Alternaria alternata

Abdolrasoul Mohammadi, Mahnaz kheirkhah, Seyed Mostafa Hashemi, Sayed Hamidreza Abtahi, Seyed Mohammad Lajevardi, Rasoul Mohammadi*

Introduction: Allergic fungal sinusitis may be seen in 10% of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and polyposis. The disease caused due to allergic reaction to aerosolized environmental conidia of fungi. It is most prevalent in young adults. Diagnostic criteria for AFS contain findings at surgery of allergic mucin, radiologic evidence of pansinusitis, positive fungal cultures and immunological tests for both cellular and humoral immune responses. Various fungi such as hyaline fungi, yeasts, and dematiaceous fungi have been involved in allergic fungal sinusitis.
Case: Herein, we present a case of AFS in a 36-year old female due to a rare dematiaceous fungus. She had bilateral nasal congestion and antrochoanal polyps. After bilateral nasal polyp surgery (BNPS), clinical samples were sent to the medical mycology laboratory in serum saline for direct microscopic examination and culture. ITS1-5.8SITS2 region was amplified using universal fungal primers ITS1 and ITS4, and the amplicon was applied for sequencing. Sequence analysis was used to confirm phenotypic findings and Alternaria alternata was identified as causative agent of AFS.
Conclusion: Molecular techniques can be used as an effective tool for identification of microorganisms in clinical specimens that provide a precise presentation of the epidemiology of microorganisms and effective control of rare fungal infections.

शोध आलेख

Candidemia due to Non-Albicans Candida Species: Risk Factors, Species Distribution and Antifungal Susceptibility Profile

Sachin Chandrakant Deorukhkar*, Shahriar Roushani and Deepika Bhalerao

Background: Recent literature on invasive candidiasis clearly documents a shift towards non albicans Candida (NAC) species. A number of risk factors have been identified for candidemia. However the search through available literature has revealed paucity of data regarding differences between the C. albicans and NAC spp. candidemia.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of candidemia and further analyze the risk factors, species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of NAC spp.
Results: Candida spp. was fifth among the leading causes of Blood stream infection. Predominance of NAC spp. was noted. C. tropicalis followed by C. glabrata were the major Candida isolates. ICU stay was the major risk factor associated with candidemia. Patients with candidemia due to NAC spp. were less likely to have diabetes compared those due to C. albicans. ICU stay and fluconazole prophylaxis/treatment were identified as significant risk for candidemia due to NAC spp. Azole resistance was significantly high in NAC spp. Conclusion: The emergence of NAC spp. highlights the importance of species identification along with antifungal susceptibility testing for institution of most appropriate antifungal drug.

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