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आयतन 6, मुद्दा 4 (2022)


Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and High Presence of NETotic Cells in Vaginal Discharges of Women with Vaginitis: An Exploratory Study

Angélica Schulz

Infectious vaginitis is a microbiological syndrome of great importance in public health that affects millions of women worldwide. However, no studies have explored the phenomenon of the production of the neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that are released into the female reproductive tract in these pathologies. This study aimed to determine the presence of NETosis in vaginal discharges of women with bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and trichomoniasis by characterizing NETs. Extracellular DNA with neutrophil elastase and citrullinated histones was identified to confirm the NET components (n = 10). The concentration, phenotypes of NETs, and number of NETotic cells were determined. The results showed an increase in NETotic cells in women with Candida albicans (CA) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and an increase in NETs in TV-induced vaginitis. Samples of Women with CA- and TV-infections displayed several NET phenotypes (diffNETs, sprNETs, and aggNETs); diffNETs were present in high numbers in samples with CA infections and were elevated in three types of NET infections with TV infections. In contrast to samples with bacterial vaginosis, those with intermediate microbiota displayed higher concentrations of NETs and more NETotic cells. Therefore, changes in the microbiota and the presence of fungal and parasite infections are key factors in the activation and induction of NETosis, and their cytotoxic actions may increase tissue damage

छोटी समीक्षा

Microbiological Research And Multidisciplinary Management Play A Crucial Role

Delphine Mauprivez

The diagnosis of primary chronic osteomyelitis of the jaw was made in a 15-year-old girl with a history of recurrent severe orofacial swelling based on clinical symptoms, histological analysis, and imaging modalities. The results of the initial microbiological samples were inconclusive. She used NSAIDs and several empirical antibiotic treatments for three years without achieving full remission. The ultimate diagnosis of bacterial chronic osteomyelitis of the jaw could only be made by MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight) analysis after further numerous microbiological bone samples with suitable methods. To reduce treatment failure, it must be managed using a multidisciplinary strategy comprising oral and maxillofacial surgeons, infectiologists, and microbiologists. The entire radiographic resolution of the CBCT (Cone Beam Computed Tomography) and the normalisation of laboratory values were obtained with antibiotic therapy without surgery for six months. A follow-up of two years revealed no relapses. In particular, in rare and clinically perplexing types of this infection, modern microbiological research and sample procedures are essential for the appropriate diagnosis and management of osteomyelitis of the jaw.


Bacteria with an antimicrobial resistance in shrimp and shrimp farms

Mahbubur Paul

This study's goal was to look into the antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria, mainly Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Vibrio species, in the shrimp farming facilities of Bagerhat (Bangladesh). Both Penaeus monodon and Macrobrachium rosenbergii farms provided sediment samples, and the Macrobrachium rosenbergii facility provided shrimp samples. Five Enterobacterales (Proteus penneri, Proteus alimentorum, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. xiangfangensis, and Plesiomonas shigelloides) were discovered, but not the previously listed bacteria. The presence of Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. xiangfangensis in a shrimp farm has never been before reported. Nine antibiotics were chosen for testing for antibiotic resistance: ampicillin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, nitrofurantoin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, and co-trimoxazole. The majority (88.9%) had at least one resistant strain. 78.0% of isolates from various sources were 29.3% of the isolates were found to be multidrug resistant and to be resistant to at least one antibiotic. The results of this experiment highlight that antimicrobial-resistant bacteria may be an issue for shrimp farms in Bagerhat despite the small number of samples examined—just nine in total. The health of consumers and the quality of shrimp may suffer as a result.

छोटी समीक्षा

A Agricultural Pathogen Becomes a Delivery Vehicle for Vaccines

Abdjeleel Emeterio

The Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), a well-known livestock pathogen and prototypical non-segmented, negative-sense RNA virus, is a member of the Vesiculovirus genus and the family Rhabdoviridae. Even though the virus is to blame for economically significant epidemics of vesicular stomatitis in cattle, horses, and pigs, molecular biologists and virologists can still use VSV as a useful research tool. In fact, the development of a reverse genetics approach for the recovery of infectious VSV from cDNA altered this virus's functionality and opened the door for its application as a vaccine vector. Many other VSV-based vaccines have been developed, especially for high-consequence viruses. A highly effective VSVbased vaccination against the Ebola virus just got clinical licensure. This review aims to give a comprehensive but succinct understanding of VSV, documenting the virus's transformation into a viable medicinal countermeasure, with a focus on vaccinations, from a persistent agricultural scourge.

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