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आयतन 6, मुद्दा 1 (2017)


ATTITUDE: An International Threat

Chandra Mohan S

The present world at 21st century is with plenty of luxuries. The much matured areas adding flavor to this are technology, innovation and research especially. With the help of these the man can able to do maximum number of day to day transactions without any pain. As the culture and trend are supporting technology and innovation these are taking the present generation into a separate world ISM. Basically ism is not a worry practice but in the recent decades the whole mind set and principle following of the members, forming as team and executing some devastation rising concerns around the world. The routine life of an average person has got a kind of phobia that, what ceasefire takes place at which time and part of world. Interestingly 2016 is the year which has observed attacks every month till July ends almost a menace every day. By The very recent incident executed by ISIS in Nice of France country particularly tells us the severe nature and ism of the terror group. The basic understanding here is that the attitude of the people at some circumstances is getting change and the result is assault. As a general public with generous nature and gentle environmental facilities why a few are becoming like this? It also brings the question how these groups are taking birth without a formal registration and recognition? And the third very interesting objection we get here is who the back bones of these groups are. Interestingly though people are fond of many things like music, money, position etc. the very inherent wound that corrupts the mindset of the individual is attitude ultimately it leads to many of the unreasonable and unacceptable creations. Here with this opportunity let me share a few points of unacceptable actions that come from wrong attitude and the route factors.

शोध आलेख

The Impact of Brand Awareness on the Consumers’ Purchase Intention

Zarlish Shahid, Tehmeena Hussain and Fareeha Zafar

This paper presents a review about the impact of brand equity and brand awareness on the purchasing intentions of the consumers. The purpose of the paper is to elaborate the relation between the awareness of a brand and the intention of consumer of buying that brand. This has been done by going through different literature and articles by different authors. It will help the readers to come across the work done by various well known authors at one place and hence will help to know how knowing a brand well will affect the consumer in making decision about buying a product.

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Change in Bank Equity Stakes before Merger Completion

Paitoon Chetthamrongchai, Lin Lin, Hsaio-Fen Hsiaoand Yu-LunHuang

This study investigates the relationship between the changes in the shareholdings of the institutional financial/ investment professionals and the firm-specific characteristics of the acquiring companies prior to merger completion. The present study thus serves to identifying the factors dominating investment behaviors of acquiring firms. Both total and average changes in their ownership are considered to test the popular agency and signaling hypotheses. Evidence shows that commercial banks are more likely to increase their equity holdings of those businesses with increasing current liability and decreasing profitability. The former supports the signaling hypothesis but the latter suggests the agency cost hypothesis is correct. Investment banks, on the other hand, prefer those with increasing assets and a stable financial status. A competitive relation of these financial experts is also presented in terms of the pursuit of greater controlling power over the board against each other before the merger completion date.


Effect of Interest Rates on Business Investment Performance of Selected Commercial Banks in Kisii Town, Kisii County, Kenya

Wycliffe Otera Maranga and Emmanuel Nyambane Nyakundi

Investors borrow money from banks and other financial institutions. The response of investment expenses changes keenly with interest rate which is at the mind of money-making analysis. Interest rates is the other strong factors that affect financial policies as well as weaker financial payments in guiding principles of investors, it facilitate investment if the high interest rate is applicable on savings. Interest rate influences savings practically all commercial banks commencing macroeconomic theories. The negative influence of higher investment rate inhibits the macroeconomic effect of interest rate policy. Interest rate is the money charged on loan of money. Investors borrow money from banks for investment. As a result of this encouragement, the bank lenders are competent to attain repayment of each and every loan by means of high prospect. As soon as it comes in the direction of mortgage contracts (if a borrower discards mortgage repayment), the loan official once more plays the central role by means of warning as well as if necessary authorize non-payment clients. Apart from the danger of advertising the security within a small number of days, they can slash off borrowers commencing extra way in to loans. The response of investment expenses changes with interest rates of having a loan from banks. The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of interest rates on business investment performance. The specific objectives of the study was to find out the effects of cash lending on business investment, to evaluate the effects of loan repayment of on business investment performance and to examine the outcome of domestic savings on business investment performance. The literature review was viewed from other related studies. The conceptual framework had two variables according to the topic under study. The independent variable was interest rate and dependent variables were business investment. The study area was in Kisii town. The target population was all employees of 18 commercial banks more so branch managers, head of units and credit managers. The researcher was select 6 commercial banks to represent 30% of the target population 18 commercial banks. The systematic stratified sampling was used to get the sample size which was arrived at through census and it comprised of 482 respondents of commercial banks. The data were collected by questionnaires as the research instruments. Data were analyzed by the use of descriptive statistics and it was presented the analyzed in figures and frequency tables. The study wanted to investigate whether loan repayment affect investment performance the determinant of credit analysis used before granting cash services to the clients. The findings showed that there was influence of loan repayment on financial performance in banks. The study wanted to indicate techniques of credit analysis used before granting credit services to the investment and found out that Firm undertakes legal action for clients who fails to repay with the least mean of the evaluation is done on credit worthiness of clients and determinants of loan repayment in microcredit are still debatable among different researchers that might be due to situational factors like country level factors, bank level factors and the condition of legal and regulatory framework of the country. Thus, these debates can only be resolved through quantitative analysis on the determinants of loan repayments. The study suggested for further studies.

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Examining the Differential Effects of the Influence of Print and Electronic Advertising on Purchasing Decisions of Tertiary Students in the Cape Coast Metropolis

Dominic Owusu

Print and electronic advertising is being used by the various telecom operators in the country as a competitive tool to lure customers of competing brands and also promote their product offerings. The current study examines the differential effects of the influences of the print and electronic advertising media used by the various telecom operators in Ghana on the purchasing decisions of tertiary students in the Cape Coast Metropolis. Primary data were collected from a sample of 754 students of the University of Cape Coast and Cape Coast Polytechnic respectively out of a population of 17,218,through questionnaire administration. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as the mean, standard deviation and multiple regressions were used to analyse the data. The findings of the study showed that compared to print advertising media; electronic advertising media had a greater influence on the purchasing decisions of tertiary students in the Cape Coast Metropolis. It is concluded that electronic advertising media influences the decisions of the tertiary students to purchase telecom products more compared to print advertising media in the Cape Coast Metropolis. It is therefore recommended the budgetary expenditure of the telecom operators in Ghana should concentrate more on utilizing electronic advertising media.

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The Effect of Social Media on Tourism Consumer Adoption Intention: Evidence from Urumqi

Qian Cao, Bin Yu and Xiao-Xia Tian Tian

Social media provide tourism consumers with a two-way communication and interaction platform. They can not only search and adopt tourism evaluation information of others when making travelling decisions, but also instantly share tourism experience and satisfaction when travelling. We randomly survey 1100 tourism consumers in Urumqi of China to test the effect of characteristic of social media on tourism consumer adoption intention, as well as explore individual heterogeneity. The result shows: interactivity, service quality, information effectiveness, convenience and participation have a significantly positive influence on tourism consumer adoption intention; the higher is tourism consumers’ education level, the more they pay attention to sharing and connectivity; the higher is tourism consumers’ income level, the more they pay attention service quality and information effectiveness. In addition, the frequency of using social media and engaging in tourism activities has a positive effect on adoption intention.

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Financial Reporting Practices in the Insurance Company in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of the Implementation of IFRS 4, Insurance Contract

Md. Mirajur Rahman

The wave of globalization has touched in every edge of the world and also proceeds in business world. Business uses accounting standard for preparing financial statements to examine the purpose of it. Financial globalization proceeds, International Financial Standard are increasingly becoming important instruments of integration. Meanwhile, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) provides evidence of accounting quality for economic consequences. IFRS argues the purpose of financial reporting is essential to reduce information asymmetry between corporate manager of companies and parties contracting with firm. This has been observed in development countries whose are leading engine in the world. Different renowned economic forum and organization reinforced the influence of implementation of IFRS in which they called global accounting standards by 2011. By the end of 2008, there were over 100 countries that had adopted IFRS. Among IFRSs, IFRS 4 requires insurance contract to comply with international accounting standards for financial reporting in order to give improvements to accounting practice and to understand the salient aspects that are related to insurance company.

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The Impact of Relational Dynamics on Students’ Loyalty and the Mediating role of Students’ Satisfaction in Higher Education Sector

Muhammad Ali Baber and Muhammad Sualeh Khattak

Students are getting attention as a customer and academic institutions are trying to make them loyal so that they will use positive word of mouth. In the current research study, the impact of relational dynamic on students’ loyalty (Positive WOM) has been examined with the mediating role of students’ satisfaction. Data were analysed from the sample of 348 students of three leading universities. Finding of this study show significant positive relationship, and students’ satisfaction mediates the relationship between relational dynamics and positive (WOM). This study will helpful for the service providing strategies of academic institutions.

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Impact of Workload and Job Complexity on Employee Job Performance with the Moderating Role of Social Support and Mediating Role of Job Stress: A Study of Travel agencies in Rawalpindi, Islamabad and AJK

Benish Shabbir and Raza Naqvi SMM

This study has been conducted to explore the effect of workload and job complexity on employee job performance, with the mediating role of job stress and moderating effect of social support on employees of travel agencies in Rawalpindi, Islamabad, and AJK. Data were collected through questionnaire from 285 working employees of travel agencies located in Rawalpindi, Islamabad and AJK. The results of the study revealed that workload and job complexity have positive and significant impact on job stress, while job stress has a negative impact on job performance, whereas workload, job complexity and its outcome job stress negatively affected by social support. Results also revealed that social support moderate the relationship of workload, job complexity and job stress. Therefore, the employees of travel agencies affected through workload and job complexity, by which job stress occur and job performance decreases respectively. In addition, social support reduces the job stress of employees in the travel agencies.

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Do Growth Opportunities Influence the Relationship of Capital Structure, Dividend Policy and Ownership Structure with Firm Value: Empirical Evidence of KSE?

Muhammad Sualehkhattak and CH Mazher Hussain

The purpose of the study is to explore empirically the association among leverage, dividend payout ownership structure and firm value and influence of growth opportunities on this relationship. To obtain the correct empirical results this study applied the correlation analysis technique, ordinary least square (OLS) regression analysis on 148 non-financial companies listed on Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE), for the period of Five years (2011-2015). Using t-test and panel data regressions. The study found significant positive relationship between leverage, and firm value, and ownership concentration and firm value while insignificant association between dividend payout and firm value. The study further found that the interaction term of leverage and growth opportunities is insignificant, the interactive term of dividend payout and growth opportunities is also insignificant, and the interaction of ownership concentration and growth opportunities is also insignificant. So in the presence of growth opportunities the relationship of leverage, dividend payout and ownership structure with firm value does not affect. So growth opportunities do not play a moderating role.

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Impact of Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance

Muhammad Hamid, Sumra Maheen, Ayesha Cheem and Rizwana Yaseen

The objective of all organizations is to improve their performance so the aim of this study is to investigate the organizational performance of 200 employees of ufone and Mobilink franchises in Sargodha city. The population in this study has included all companies in telecommunication in Pakistan. We are conducting the exploratory factor analysis. In analyzing the data the descriptive statistics was used. Software used for data analysis was SPSS version 20. The results shows that the higher level of compensation management, organizational citizenship behavior and employee development practices that will lead to a higher level of organizational performance, also indicate that compensation management, organizational citizenship behavior and employee development is positively associated with organizational performance. Our result shows that there is positive or significant relationship between independent and dependent variables, so we reject the null hypothesis. There are some areas that need more development in future including the topics that relate to the study that can be conducted on manufacturing firms with more variables

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Effect of Terrorism on the International Business in Pakistan

Rabia Najaf

In this paper, we have explored the impact of terrorism on the international business in Pakistan. For this purpose we have taken the data from 1998 to 2008 and applied the random sampling method and Pearsons product moment. Our results are showing that there is association between terrorism and international business in Pakistan. Terrorism has impact not only stock exchange of Pakistan while, it has impact on the other sectors like education, banking sector, finance sectors, foreign direct investment sectors also. Therefore Government of Pakistan should have taken notice such types of terrorism activities. These terrorism activities have impact on the economy of country; due to this reason the economy of Pakistan is going to decline position.

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The Causal Relationship between Inflation and Economic Growth in Nigeria

Rabia Najaf

In this paper, analysed that Nigeria is the poor country and facing the problem of inflation from last few years. The prime objective of this paper is to analysis the impact on all the developing and under developing countries. We have applied the regression analysis and taken the tile series data. Our results are showing that there negative relationship between Nigeria stock exchange and rate of inflation from last few years. We are also trying to expose that importance of stock exchange in all over the country and due to high inflation rate there is very worst impact on the progress of the economy. Our study suggested that government should make inflation control policies for the better performance.

शोध आलेख

Dynamics of the Exchange Rate in India

Rabia Najaf and Khakan Najaf

Exchange rate is act as the main role in the integral part of the economic development. India is also facing this issue like other Asian countries impact of increase exchange rate on the growth of the economy. It is source of the external funds and act as the channel between risk and investment. In this research, we have taken the data from 1998 to 2008 and applied the ADF test, normality test and Jarqu e-Bera statistics test for taking the proper results about the impact of exchange rate on the development of India. Normality test explains the nature of the data. Our results are showing that increase exchange rate has negative impact on the stock exchange of India. Our suggested that Government should focus about the exchange rate policy.

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